ISSN 1002-8587  CN 11-2765/K
15 September 2021, Volume 0 Issue 5 Previous Issue   
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Early Qing Dynasty Official Interpretations of Confucian Works and Official Confucian Classics
HUANG Aiping
2021, 0(5): 1-11. 
Abstract ( )   PDF (13094KB) ( )  

Since the reign of Shunzhi, experiencing the three reigns of Kangxi, Yongzheng and Qianlong emperors, the Qing Imperial Court successively compiled nineteen categories of scripture and interpretative books with various titles, such as "Jie Yi", Zhe Zhong, Hui Zuan and "Yi Shu through official revision, which covered all the Confucian classics and thus constructed a systematic system of official Confucian classics. Referring to these measures, the rulers showed the governing function of Confucian classics, declared the unity of Confucian orthodoxy, and imperial governance, strengthened ethics and morality and the order of superior and inferior, and showed a certain sense of academic : summary. It is beneficial to deepen the study of the politics , ideology, and academia of the Qing Dynasty by clarifying the concrete situation of the early Qing official interpretations of Confucian classics, analyzing the background and process of the establishment of the official Confucian classics system, and disclosing the political pursuit, ideological concepts and cultural implications contained in them.

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The Integration of Domestic and Foreign Affairs: A Study of China's Political Situation in 1900 through the Replacement of Shanghai Daotai

2021, 0(5): 113-125. 
Abstract ( )   PDF (15029KB) ( )  

In September 1900, an important personnel change suddenly took place in Shanghai, which had been saved from war by southeast mutual protection": Yu Lianyuan was replaced by Cheng Yiluo, the alternate official of Jiangsu Province. It seemed like an ordinary official appointment, but there were complex power contests and diplomatic activities, including the intervention of the consuls of various countries, as well as the participation of Chinese officials such as Liu Kunyi, Sheng Xuanhuai, Li Hongzhang, Rong Lu, Lu Chuanlin, and others. The investigation of this event provides a new perspective from which to grasp the changes of China's political situation in 1900. At the same time, this event reveals the interwoven political modality of internal and foreign affairs in this period.

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A New Interpretation of Confucianism during the Jiaqing and Daoguang Periods: Gong Zizhen's Theory of “Consistency”,"Phase”and “Principle of Confucian Classics"
ZHANG Guangsheng XU Mengyang
2021, 0(5): 12-23. 
Abstract ( )   PDF (13457KB) ( )  
The interpretation of Consistency" (yiyiguanzhi), quoted from Confucius, helped Qing Confucian scholars to connect the way of learning" and the orthodoxy of Confucianism". According to scholars in the Qianlong and Jiaqing periods, understanding of the Sage 's righteousness was the result of extensive research and learning. However, based upon Dai Zhen 's theory of understanding Dao by words, Gong Zizhen distinguished interpretation of Text of the Sage and Dao of the Sage" and argued that textual learning is not the only way to understand Dao of the Sage". Dao of the Sage does not only stem from learning and teaching, but also from practice, which conforms to changing with the time. In this process, . 'guest - teachers", the disciples of the sage, played an important role in passing on the truth. Gong Zizhen demonstrated the value of showing respect to talents by his iteration of Dao of the Sage. Gong's theory originating from the internal evolution of Qing academics has been seen as an attempt to address the crisis of his times.
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Acting Imperial Power by the Minister: The Dispute over the Etiquette of Zaifeng's Regency and the New Situation of Imperial Power in the Xuantong Reign
Li Xinrong
2021, 0(5): 126-139. 
Abstract ( )   PDF (16104KB) ( )  
In November 1908, Empress Dowager Cixi suddenly died. On her deathbed, she ordered Zaifeng to be the Prince Regent, and told him to seek advice on "major events" from the Empress Dowager Longyu. At that time, public opinion in China and in foreign countries was quite favorable toward Zaifeng. The Qing government formulated the etiquette of Regency by means of collegial discussion. Zaifeng and Longyu reached a compromise to handle state affairs and palace events separately. Driven by the force of some censors, the signature system of the seal, which aimed at controlling the State Administration and had the color of constitutionalism, was implemented. The Forbidden City defense force and even the national military forces were also controlled by the Prince Regent. On the other hand, Zaifeng was willing to serve as a minister, and modestly handled the etiquette issues such as residence, royal summons, and the Regent worship. These arrangements weakened the majesty of the imperial powers, and met the expectation of public opinion for constitutionalism, but also caused the concern that the etiquette was not standard. Acting imperial power with the minister as the core of the new regent system, was easily influenced by the last edict of Cixi and the royal power
struggle. Zaifeng failed to promote the constitutional system in time to eliminate the hidden dangers, which initiated the pro aristocratic movement and the chaotic politics of Xuantong Dynasty.

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Study of the Oroci System in Turehot Mongols

B. Batubayar
2021, 0(5): 140-147. 
Abstract ( )   PDF (9120KB) ( )  
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  Research on Sayin Noyan Tribe Prince Lawangdorji of the Qing Dynasty

LIU Weidong
2021, 0(5): 148-156. 
Abstract ( )   PDF (10257KB) ( )  
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The Submission and Rescript of the Routine Memorials in the Court of the Early Qing Dynasty

2021, 0(5): 24-34. 
Abstract ( )   PDF (12033KB) ( )  
Inherited from the Ming state, the system of administrative communication in the early Qing court after conquering China proper was founded on the circulation of a document, the Routine Memorial (Tiben). In the middle of Kangxi reign, the emperor made two significant changes to adapt the system to the new imperial administrative practice, that is, to rule in the imperial landscapes" or during an imperial tour. The first change reversed the submission of Routine Memorials, making the Great Secretariat, instead of the emperor, the first to receive and process documents. The second change was to establish a new office, the Rescript Office (piben chu) to reduce the emperor's daily paperwork burden. Despite the appearance of slothful rulership, the new system improved the efficiency
of central government by mobilizing the officials like the Great Secretaries and Manchu servants of Imperial Household Department, forming a firm Inner Court that emphasized imperial power in the long eighteenth century China.

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Study of the Western Character Code Created by Yuntang#br#
WANG Miansen
2021, 0(5): 35-45. 
Abstract ( )   PDF (11515KB) ( )  
Yuntang, the son of Emperor K angxi, created a code by mixing western characters and Manchu language. The Qing government included the use of this code to send messages as one of the 28 accusations against Yuntang. An inspection of the newly discovered file of Yuntang's case, has found that the code system transliterated Chinese using Manchu and then transliterated Manchu language to L atin characters. The design of this code system considered both the sound and shape of the characters. The code was quite distinctive but also had many defects. As the earliest known transliteration of Manchu created by Chinese people, the western character code created by Yuntang was an example of cultural communication between East and West in the early Qing Dynasty. As to the content of the coded letter, it only discussed family matters. Nevertheless, when the Qing government charged Yuntang it bypassed the content and focused on criticizing the intention of his behavior and created a subtle sense of between the virtual and the reality"' regarding the content of the letter and the meaning of the violation.

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A Further Study of the Functions of the Seal and Official Scribes in the Qing Dynasty: An Analysis of Litigation Documents in Southern Zhejiang

YU Shuai
2021, 0(5): 46-54. 
Abstract ( )   PDF (10470KB) ( )  
 In the process of local litigation in the Qing dynasty, the law stipulated that the complaint delivered by the plaintiff must be reviewed and recorded by an official scribe. At present, the academic discussion regarding the specific process involving the official scribe affixing a seal and the actual identity of the plaintiff needs further clarification. In this essay, the author examines the example of Jing Tianlei" of Songyang, a case which was collected by Zhejiang Normal University, along with the litigation files from other areas of southern Zhejiang. Based on changes in the serial numbers of the official scribes and the identity of the plaintiffs,  the author puts forward the concept of “creation right”and “transcription right” of the document while also estimating the scale of regional litigation. The author finds that the seal was the most important symbol of the official scribe in the Qing dynasty.

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The Military Scribe and the Military Management in the Qing Dynasty

WEN Haibo XIE Diancheng
2021, 0(5): 55-68. 
Abstract ( )   PDF (16709KB) ( )  
     The military scribe (ZISHI) was the most basic level staff in charge of processing
documents for the Green Standard Army during the Qing Dynasty. Originating in the Ming Dynasty, the
system of military scribes continued operating under the Shunzhi reign and was took shape during the
mid- Kangxi reign. Most of these scribes were selected from the battalions by their officers. They were
paid without receiving military training, so there was an attempt to replace them with military clerks
during the Yongzheng period. Nevertheless, military officers kept this system for various reasons, related
to the military budget or their own interests. Therefore, military scribes were widespread, and this
system was difficult to abolish. To solve this problem and ensure the effective transmission of military
documents, the Qing court made corresponding regulations on the amount, status, and allocation of
military scribes in the mid - and late Qianlong period. The gradual institutionalization of military scribes
was a compromise and pragmatic measure when the military power had difficulty to reach the grass
roots society. However, problems resulting from the limited literacy of military officers could not be
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Research on Local Militias (Tuanlian) in the Early Qing Dynasty

2021, 0(5): 69-83. 
Abstract ( )   PDF (16786KB) ( )  
      In the past, scholars usually have traced the origin of local militias (tuanlian) to the White Lotus Rebellion during the reign of the Jiaqing Emperor, and on this basis came to some inaccurate conclusions such as the dualistic relationship between the state and local and the theory that local militias originated from Baojia. This paper analyzes the origin of the concept of militia and focuses on the formation and evolution of militia in the early Qing Dynasty. It aims to show that militias were not a unique phenomenon to the late Qing Dynasty, and that the Qing state had already adopted this political strategy under the tense military situation in some border areas to achieve the purpose of consolidating local rule. At the same time, the relationship of militias and Baojia was not original and
evolutionary, but a special relationship of externality and essence.
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Salt Policy in Yunnan during the Southern Ming and Early Qing

YIN Qiaorui
2021, 0(5): 84-98. 
Abstract ( )   PDF (16344KB) ( )  
 Salt was one of the financial resources of the Southern Ming. High - ranking officers
from the Daxi army took charge of the administration of salt policy in Yunnan province, and civilian
officials participated in the administration at the grass roots level. Tax quotas increased because of
military expenditures, a reduction of salt output, and an expansion of the market area. The remnants of
the Daxi Army implemented proportional allocations, which yielded abundant profits to salt- workers.
Under the Qing Dynasty occupied the area, surrendered officers and officials were reappointed as
salt governors. The tax quotas and proportional allocations were inherited, and the tax standard of the :
Southern Ming became the original quota of Qing Dynasty, but the proportional allocation between
government and salt- workers was replaced by a quota system. In this way, the unorthodox precedent of
the Southern Ming generated a new ordinance in the Early Qing.

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On the Reform of Military Land Rent in Jiangxi Province and Its Influence in the Middle Period#br# of Qianlong
WANG Wenxiao
2021, 0(5): 99-112. 
Abstract ( )   PDF (14859KB) ( )  
       In the early period of Qianlong, the Qing government began to notice the loss of military
land in various provinces. In order to cope with the crisis, the Qing government looked for other methods
when the forced redemption policy failed. In 1758, the Qing government implemented a reform in Jiangxi
Province, the government turned the rent of military land into a new tax specifically used to subsidize the
soldiers by greatly increasing the rent of land and subsidizing the soldiers who delivered grain. The reform
was very successful, so in 1772, the Qing government introduced the reform experience to other provinces.
After the reform, all provinces have adopted the method of increasing military land rent to replace the
traditional compulsory redemption policy. It reflects the expansion of the financial system in the Qing
Dynasty. By directly receiving quota subsidies, soldiers have replaced the tradition of cultivating state-
owned land or collecting land rent, and relaxed their ties with military land.
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